What methodology should Antioch Unified District use to examine the African America suspension rate?

In a recent article, a local National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.(NAACP) has filed a lawsuit against the Antioch Unified School District. The lawsuit assert that the school district has reneged on an agreement that would help to evaluate any alleged racial disciplinary disparities for African American students. The Antioch Unified School District would benefit from a case study that will focus on improving teacher-student classroom relationships.

According to the article, NAACP lawsuit alleges Antioch Unified violated school discipline agreement, the local NAACP filed a lawsuit alleging that the district has undermined a previous agreement to improve school discipline challenges. The lawsuit asks the Contra Costa County Superior Court to compel the Antioch Unified School District to honor an agreement to allow outside specialists to examine the persistent quantity of disproportional number of African-American students who are suspended or expelled.

The challenges that the NAACP desires to be examined include why and when African-American students are expelled or suspended, whether the district has provided African-American students with sufficient special education services, and how a staff that is predominantly White might be trained to deal with potential racial bias in a district where nearly 80 percent of students are of Latino, African-American, Asian or other minority heritage.

Why should the Antioch Unified School District use a case study to examine the African American suspension rate?

A case study provides opportunities to evaluate bounded systems. A system bounded by time and space is considered an bounded system. Case study research provides an in-depth analysis and detailed description of a bounded system. Case studies provide researchers the opportunity to record espoused theories in use derived from responses that reflect conscious values and beliefs. A case study will provide the information necessary to develop the change process needed to overcome the racial challenges faced by the Antioch Unified School District historically underserved students.

A case study method provides an opportunity to develop trust. Required trust between management and employee increases with initiatives that require people to make personal and systemic change. If a trust gap develops, then the person advocating the initiative will have credibility reduction, which makes people feel at risk. Leaders build trust by developing credibility with staff. People accept the influence of leaders they trust. Trust is the key to systemic change.

What other types of evaluation techniques should the Antioch Unified School District use to examine the African American suspension rate?

Interviews are used to collect qualitative data. Interviews will provide the researcher with a real-life data collection process to assist the researcher with a case study. Interviews provide researchers with information for academic analysis. Interviews are either structured and unstructured. In structured interviews, all interviewees receive the same set of questions in the same order, and then the responses are coded according to some pre-established scheme. Unstructured interviews are open-ended. Interviews provide researchers with a method to develop detailed holistic descriptions and processes that integrate multiple perspectives by reporting interrelated behaviors and events that bridge intersubjectives for reporting research as an insider and identifying and framing hypothesis for quantitative research.

Next, tape-recorded interviews will benefit the research process. Recording interviews provides the researcher the opportunity to transcribe interviewees’ responses verbatim. Each interviewee should sign a consent form before the interview. The researcher should also use an interview guide that provides the researcher with guiding questions for the interview. Interview guides ensure the interviewer carefully decides how best to use limited time available in an interview.

Interview questions should parallel the first four Ladder of Inference rungs, which Argyris (1990) developed and Senge et al. (2000) expanded. Senge et al. (2000) expanded the Ladder of Inference to include:

  • Observable data and experiences
  • Selected data from observations
  • Added cultural and personal meanings
  • Assumptions made about cultural and personal beliefs
  • Conclusions
  • Adopted beliefs
  • Actions taken based on those beliefs

After transcribing the interviews, the researcher should return transcribed interview copies to each interviewee to verify the transcriptions and increase validity by member checking. Member checking involves sharing interview transcriptions with research participants to make sure the researcher represents them and their ideas.

Next, the researcher should conduct focus group interviews. Focus group interviews are guided or unguided discussions regarding a specific topic of interest to a set of people and the researcher. Focus group discussions can include collecting data in a one-shot setting and facilitating collective brainstorming to solve problems. Focus group interviews enable a researcher to collect large quantities of data in a short time period, resulting in powerful insights that are not available with individual interviews. Focus group interviews were a primary vehicle for collecting data from participating staff during this study.

Finally, Systems Thinking is a theoretical framework that will help to evaluate present conditions at the Antioch Unified School District. Systems Thinking is the study of a system’s structure and behavior (Senge et al., 2000). Systems’ structure and behavior are easy to see when the causes and effects are close enough to see. However, complex systems have causal and effect loops that are far removed and difficult to analyze. Senge et al. (2000) recommend analyzing a system by evaluating events, patterns and trends, systemic structure, and mental models. Systems Thinking will provide an assessment process that deciphers information needed to develop change processes that could eliminate the alleged racism at the Antioch Unified School District.

Related Articles

Antioch school district faces lawsuit by East Bay NAACP

Antioch School Board, NAACP sign settlement agreement to avoid lawsuit

East County NAACP Sues Antioch Unified School District for Violating Agreement on Civil and Disability Rights

All the best,

Dr. Derrick L. Campbell, Ed.D.
PO Box 4707 Cherry Hill, NJ 08034


Get Email Updates

Author of Promoting Positive Racial Teacher Student Classroom Relationships and Promoting Positive Racial Teacher Student Classroom Relationships: Methodology

The Raccelerate Phenomenon

Treasures of Hidden Racism in Education

 3D (1)          Educational Racism Book          Racism Book          icon_r

“The model that you use to analyze teacher-student relationships is a good one for most school districts”.

~ Joe Vas ~ Perth Amboy Mayor

“Dr. Campbell’s Cultural Relationship Training Program is comprehensive, informative, and should be required training for all schools”

~ Darrell Pope ~ Hutchinson Kansas NAACP President


Derrick 96 dpi



About Classroom Racism Management Specialist

Racism is a menace and so we’ve been taught for ages which is the primary need for a diversity expert. However, even in this modern society of today where we see a lot of colored celebrities performing on stage with huge fan followings and of course an Afro-America President for the USA, we are still in a phase where racism exists in all its brutal glory and has been eating away at the society like a plague. Classrooms, are one of the most affected areas where color differences and racism exists to its extremes. Even after decades of progress and a lot of communal efforts at bridging the gaps between colored students, white students and teachers, it is sad to say that the disparities still exist and are just as pronounced today as they were back in the 1950s. Colored students, even in the likes of New York City, are attending under resourced schools or have been significantly isolated and made to be unequal in regular schools. Even if the teachers are well-intentioned, perpetuating the structural racism that has taken deep roots into the fabric of our education system is a tough task and make the need for a diversity expert imperative. Teachers need to recognize the biases that exist within the classroom and also take conscious measures to address them and their own biases of course. James Baldwin once said, “it is your very own responsibility to change this society, if you think of yourself as an educated person.” Dr. Derrick L. Campbell took this quote very effectively and straight to the heart and thus this Classroom Racism Exterminator happened. Classroom Racism Exterminator is an initiative that will teach you about your duty and moral obligation towards eliminating racism from the classrooms. This is where and how you will learn about what you need to do to produce a better society that is free of biases and disparities amongst the blacks and the whites. Because we understand how classroom biases and conversations about racism are difficult and how teachers and students almost avoid the topics altogether, we have put together a range of effective methods and products to help address the problem at hand and talk meaningfully to counter issues related to race and racism in the classroom. Diversity expert Dr. Campbell understands that it takes a lot of courage to talk about race and racism and that racial issues need to be viewed through a very critical lens that can understand and attend to the pertaining aspects of racism in the classroom. And therefore through this website we have made a conscious effort to eliminate racism from the classroom and make the educational system equal and beneficial for all. We know and we understand that there are no words that can actually describe how racism feels. There are cases and everybody tends to deal with it in their own manner. Some might lash out verbally or others might just withdraw into shells. Whatever the case, people don’t talk about it openly and teachers don’t really make a conscious effort at addressing the issue. We don’t really know if our children or if the youth is learning to be educated or become racists in their classroom. Our program is focused on helping children of color and regardless of their race, their full potential. We want every student to be able to recognize and reach their full potential so that they think of themselves as responsible citizens of their country and not regard themselves as worthless human beings. Here you will find motivational books and flash card games, all of which have been designed focusing on eliminating racism completely from our classrooms. The books and the games have been consciously designed keeping in mind the American society and educational system. It is a small effort on our and Dr. Campbell’s part to help this society become a better place to live in. A little about diversity expert Dr. Campbell Dr. Derrick L. Campbell the driving force behind Classroom Racism Exterminator is a dynamic figure and a constant source of motivation for us. He has a Bachelors of Science in Electronics Engineering Technology, Math Education, a Masters in Education Administration and also holds a doctoral degree in Educational Leadership. Dr. Campbell is a well known personality throughout the nation. He has lectured at various events including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Iron Sharpens Iron Men’s Conference and a lot of local churches. He is a personality well dedicated towards eliminating the plague of racism from our classrooms and helping every child recognize his/her true potential not the color of their skin. He realizes how a child would feel if he/she was made to think they are worthless human beings. Diversity expert Dr. Campbell is compassionate and related to the experiences and therefore this initiative is a constant and continual effort to eliminate racism manifested in us, completely from the classroom and from our society.
This entry was posted in Discrimination, institutional Racism, Leadership, Positive Teacher Student Relationships, Race Relations, Race Relations in America, racial discrimination, Racial Profiling, Racism, Racism in America, Racism in Education, School Discipline, Structural Racism, The Raccelerate Formula, The Raccelerate Phenomenon and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s